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For forex / crypto, when calculating sharpe ratio, where do we get risk-free rate percentage to use in the formula?

Hi, sharpe ratio formula says it is (average return - riskfree rate return) / standard deviation of return
but where do we get the risk free rate return of crypto and forex in day trading algos?
thank you.
submitted by questionaway221 to algotrading [link] [comments]

For forex / crypto, when calculating sharpe ratio, where do we get risk-free rate percentage to use in the formula?

submitted by LiterallyStonkler to StonkFeed [link] [comments]

Why don't reinvested coupons cancel out discounting coupons when calculating a bond's PV (assuming rates are constant)?

I come across a lot of practice questions where I calculate a bond's PV by discounting all its coupons payments and the principal + final coupon repayment by the interest rate. However, wouldn't coupon payments also get reinvested at the same interest rate? So if we have a bond paying a %10 coupon and interest rates are 11% and are calculating PV, we would discount the coupon payments by the market interest rate of 11% (compounded accordingly), but then since the coupon is being reinvested at the same interest rate of 11%, would they not cancel each other out leaving us with just the coupon itself?
submitted by Minimum_Passing_Slut to CFA [link] [comments]

@Reuters: Urals oil discount widens as freight rates for Russian oil jump - traders, Reuters calculations https://t.co/rWkkFepQBt https://t.co/9jaQMsm0E9

@Reuters: Urals oil discount widens as freight rates for Russian oil jump - traders, Reuters calculations https://t.co/rWkkFepQBt https://t.co/9jaQMsm0E9 submitted by -en- to newsbotbot [link] [comments]

@Reuters: Urals oil discount widens as freight rates for Russian oil jump - traders, Reuters calculations https://t.co/vkRfZI25UN https://t.co/tRKhjLtTD0

@Reuters: Urals oil discount widens as freight rates for Russian oil jump - traders, Reuters calculations https://t.co/vkRfZI25UN https://t.co/tRKhjLtTD0 submitted by -en- to newsbotbot [link] [comments]

Calculate payback period for investments with constant annual returns, with a discount rate, in small number of cells.

I need to calculate the payback period for a series of potential investments, with a constant dollar-value return each year after a single fixed investment, with future returns discounted 4%. I am aware of the conventional way to do this (see image 1), by tabulating the cash flows annually and finding the payback point. This is not practical for me, as I have to repeat this calculation over a few dozen different scenarios, each with a different initial investment and a different annual return (see image 2). Ideally, this would be a formula that references cells above it which I could rapidly copy and paste across columns. If that ideal scenario is not possible, is there some other way I can partially automate finding the payback period?
I am using Office 365 for enterprise, Version 2108 (Build 14326.20852 Click-to-Run)
Image 1, conventional payback period table
Image 2, sample of data I'm working with
submitted by tempthrowaway199997 to excel [link] [comments]

Can somebody please explain on what is the fundamental/ basic reason behind the 'Sum of Z' term when calculating the market value of an interest rate swap. When we have calculated the new and the old SFR, why do we need that sum at all. Is it the discount rate associated to all the resets ?

Can somebody please explain on what is the fundamental/ basic reason behind the 'Sum of Z' term when calculating the market value of an interest rate swap. When we have calculated the new and the old SFR, why do we need that sum at all. Is it the discount rate associated to all the resets ? submitted by Milan_04 to CFA [link] [comments]

[Finance] How to calculate market rate of interest (discount rate)

Exactly 2 years ago, you purchased at par a 10-year, 10 percent semi-annual coupon bond with a face value of $1000. Today, the market rate of interest is 6%.
What was the market rate of interest (discount rate) at the time you purchased the bond?

It seems basic but I'm struggling with this one. Wouldn't I need the PV to figure out the yield at a certain date? Or is it maybe a trick question and the answer is 6%?
submitted by luca25hunter to HomeworkHelp [link] [comments]

Top Rated Forex Calculator Reviews in 2022

submitted by AlphaexCapital to AlphaexCapital [link] [comments]

Investopedia Video: Fed's Discount Rate

Investopedia Video: Fed's Discount Rate submitted by emadbably to OptionsInvestopedia [link] [comments]

how to calculate the implied discount rate

how to calculate the implied discount rate
hello,
can someone help me how to calculate the implied discount rate like this example

https://preview.redd.it/inkzlr07xnq81.png?width=961&format=png&auto=webp&s=4a96d9f9a2c275d71df129232c40ebee227c37db
submitted by Omarjasser to Accounting [link] [comments]

Here is a step-by-step guide with an example for building your own Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) excel spreadsheet to calculate intrinsic value of a stock. All the important metrics explained in detail - Discount Rate, Perpetual Growth Rate, Future FCF Growth Rate, Margin of Safety and more.

Here is a step-by-step guide with an example for building your own Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) excel spreadsheet to calculate intrinsic value of a stock. All the important metrics explained in detail - Discount Rate, Perpetual Growth Rate, Future FCF Growth Rate, Margin of Safety and more. submitted by value_investor4ever to ValueInvesting [link] [comments]

[Univerisity commerce] How to calculate discount rate?

I’m trying to calculate this discount rate but can’t get it the answer is 10.8% any help appreciated
Stack is a privately held programming company that is developing software for functional programming. After a period of strong growth, it has revenues of $25m and EBITDA of $2.5m. After some internal discussions they decide to find a VC to provide growth capital and are wondering about what valuation they could reach. Stack has not raised any external debt or equity to date. You are part of the business development team and the founders have asked you to do some initial calculations to help them with negotiations. You look at some firms listed on the NASDAQ and find one which is similar to Stack.
They have a beta of 1.8, a EV/EBITDA multiple of 12x, a debt to equity ratio of 1/5, and the effective tax rate is 20%. The risk free rate is 3%, the expected market risk premium is 5%.
  1. One of the founders remembers something called a discount rate back in business school. They ask you to calculate it so they can compare it against what a VC might say. What is the discount rate given existing information?
submitted by Thiqye888 to HomeworkHelp [link] [comments]

Finance nerds: what discount rate did you use for your net present value calculation?

I’m comparing paying cash vs a 12 year 2.49% finance option (financed amount $1k higher than cash).
Even assuming I need to payoff the loan balance when I move, the finance option NPV calc breaks even faster than the cash option for any discount rate >3%. Finance option gets a lot of help because I can get the system with 0 down, then pocket the 26% credit, all while saving a little on my power bill each month.
All math aside, it would be a cool flex just to pay cash now and have free power for the house. How did you decide on this?
submitted by submast3r to solar [link] [comments]

Here I explain how to perform Discounted Cash Flow Calculation with an example. I also share a free tool to calculate DCF. Fundamentals behind DCF explained - Owner earnings, Maintenance CapEx, Free Cash Flows, Discount Rate, Perpetual Growth Rate and more

Here I explain how to perform Discounted Cash Flow Calculation with an example. I also share a free tool to calculate DCF. Fundamentals behind DCF explained - Owner earnings, Maintenance CapEx, Free Cash Flows, Discount Rate, Perpetual Growth Rate and more submitted by value_investor4ever to ValueInvesting [link] [comments]

Discounted UPS calculated shipping rates not showing up for buyer.

When applying calculated shipping you have the ability to select "eBay rates" which lowers the cost of shipping. Am I wrong in assuming when I do this that it will give the buyer the discounted rate? I was under the impression it would, but in the last couple of days I've noticed that it is not applying the discount and instead only offering them the "in-store rates". Anyone else having this issue or has it always been like that? This can have a huge impact on the price. I'm in the west so this charges the buyer almost double what I'm paying when shipping to the east coast.
submitted by Natsaw to Ebay [link] [comments]

How to Calculate the Discount Rate Implicit in the Lease

The new lease accounting standards result in all leases being captured on the balance sheet [1]. To do this, all known lease payments are required to be present valued. To present value, you need a discount rate, so what discount rate should you use? The accounting standard states you should use the rate is implicit in the lease.
Don't know what that is or how to calculate the implicit rate in the lease? Refer to an in-depth guide here.

[1] There are some exemptions to not recording your lease on your company's balance sheet. For ASC 842, it is:
For IFRS 16:
submitted by brendandd to LeaseAccounting [link] [comments]

Here is a step-by-step guide with an example for building your own Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) excel spreadsheet to calculate intrinsic value of a stock. All the important metrics explained in detail - Discount Rate, Perpetual Growth Rate, Future FCF Growth Rate, Margin of Safety and more.

Here is a step-by-step guide with an example for building your own Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) excel spreadsheet to calculate intrinsic value of a stock. All the important metrics explained in detail - Discount Rate, Perpetual Growth Rate, Future FCF Growth Rate, Margin of Safety and more. submitted by zors_primary to u/zors_primary [link] [comments]

Discount rate in intrinsic value calculation

When calculating intrinsic value (using dcf) I used to a discount rate of 3% to sort of track inflation. However when watching some videos of intrinsic value calculations I seen people using a discount rate of 15 percent however they didn’t compound it year over year
What discount rate should I use in my intrinsic value calculation , should i compound it and why should I use that specific discount rate?
submitted by bslye1 to ValueInvesting [link] [comments]

Sensitivity analysis of 2021 Net Present Value calculation: Current market cap (1,3Bn) horrendously undervalued. Equal to NPV using 30% discount rate and only 30% of projected positive FCF from investor presentation.

Sensitivity analysis of 2021 Net Present Value calculation: Current market cap (1,3Bn) horrendously undervalued. Equal to NPV using 30% discount rate and only 30% of projected positive FCF from investor presentation. submitted by CatSE---ApeX--- to ASTSpaceMobile [link] [comments]

eli5, what is a discount rate when calculating a cost-benefit analysis?

Eg. 5%. I have been googling but can't seem to wrap my head around it. Thanks in advance
submitted by KhazixTheVoidreaver to explainlikeimfive [link] [comments]

Fundamentals Guide for Beginners Step by Step

Re-posting and doing a sticky of my guide here because the last guide links for the stickies post are now dead. Copied from here: https://www.reddit.com/UndervaluedStonks/comments/kheec2/the_ultimate_fundamentals_guide_on_what_you_need/
This is going to be the ultimate guide on what you should learn first starting from knowing absolutely nothing about investing to becoming an investor who can beat the market indexes. It doesn't matter if you invest in penny stocks or blue chips. The principles are all the same.
This is an opinionated guide. If you just want a resource unopinionated guide then check out this github:
https://github.com/ckz8780/market-toolkit
I will update it constantly in the future.

Prerequisites

- There are no capital requirements to investing. In fact you should start learning as soon as possible because it takes time to become proficient at investing.
- This guide is only for fundamentals as I specialize in fundamentals and not day trading, technical charting, cryptocurrencies or forex trading.
- This guide is tailored towards people who want to individually pick stocks, if you solely do ETF's or index investing this guide is still useful to you but not aimed at you.
- Investing should be done with disposable income. NOT with income you need such as rent money.
- If you aren't willing to put in the time and effort that investing requires to beat the market indexes then you should stick to passive investing and just buy an index fund and forget about it for 20 years. This requires 0 effort but you will never beat 8% a year on average and you because you lack experience you may panic and sell at times when you shouldn't.

1. Getting Started

To start off I would recommend watching this overview video, it quickly goes over the main stuff by legend investor Bill Ackman:
Bill Ackman: Everything You Need to Know About Stocks
Then you should start reading, lots of reading and no big amounts of investing. You have to read books from other fundamental investors to have an idea of how they did it and the decades of accumulated experience of investing they have poured into that book. It's important to read the right books from authors who have a track record of beating the market, not just anybody. I have ordered this list in terms of ease of reading for newbie investors as well as priority:
  1. Peter Lynch - One Up On Wall Street
  2. Peter Lynch - Beating the Street
  3. Joel Greenblatt - The Little Book That Beats the Market
These 3 are all easy books for a beginner to get their feet wet and start off with some solid fundamentals. The harder books will come later.

2. Reading Financial Statements

Investing is all about reading financial statements and understanding how to read them such as the 10-k, 10-Q etc. Pick any company, it doesn't matter which one but I recommend that you pick a simple company that you already use and know.
Income Statement
Statement of Cash Flows
The Balance Sheet

Official RNS Reporting Sites
Companies are required to file official reports with their countries regulator, in the U.S this is the SEC (apart from small companies that trade Over The Counter).A list of the most popular official sites, you can search for your company on here:
- SEC - United States Listed Stocks
- OTC - United States OTC (Penny) stocks
- LSE - UK Stocks
- ASX - Australian Stocks
- NZX - New Zealand Stocks
- TSX - Canadian Stocks
- CSE - Canadian Alternative Stocks
- EURONEXT - France, Ireland, Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal, Norway, Alt UK
- GPW - Polish Stocks
- BOERSE FRANKFURT - German Stocks
Filings dump: https://github.com/ckz8780/market-toolkit#filings
It makes no sense to limit yourself to investing in one country only. A lot of bargains lay in other countries and you should expand your horizons to them and not just U.S stocks on Robinhood. So I added international links above too.
A lot of the above sites also have email signups so you can be notified instantly when a companies publish a new report.

3. Intrinsic Valuations

The most important part of this section in my opinion. If you understand how to intrinsically value a company then you understand when to buy and when to sell a company based on it's real value.
These differ from relative valuations such as the ratio's (PEG, PE etc) because here we are trying to find the intrinsic value to a company and NOT the relative value compared to it's peers. This is an important difference, for example in the 2001 dot com bubble you could have valued an insanely overvalued internet stock with a relative ratio such as Price-Operating-Cash-Flow and you may have found it to be better than it's peers. Just because it's better relatively than it's peers in it's industry does not mean a company is fair value.
Discounted Cash Flows Models
The reason a lot of people do not like DCF's is because:
  1. They do not understand how to do them properly.
  2. The resources online are absolutely terrible for DCF's, most use CAPM (in my opinion, a completely flawed way to calculate your WACC).
  3. The templates are confusing.
I felt the same way until I watched Aswath Damoradan's course on corporate finance.
Here's the short course with 15 min long videos each:
Short Course on Valuation (Free)
However I highly recommend you do the entire university course (for free) because it's invaluable to understanding how to intrinsically value companies:
2019 Full Undergraduate Valuation Course (Free)
2019 Full MBA Valuation Course (Free)
There is a lot of cross-over between the above two playlists so once you do one course you can cherry pick videos from the other course.
Here are some resources on how to do your own DCF's:
Covid DCF Template Excel Spreadsheet (Free)
NYU - All Valuation Spreadsheets (Free)
The reason why I like these DCF models are because they are easy to use (Aswath explains how to use the excel template it in his video) and it does not use the flawed CAPM model for calculating the WACC.
Dividend Discount Models
An alternative way of getting the intrinsic value of a company. I do these very rarely so I'm no expert on them. I hope to up date this section in the future with more details.

4. Relative Valuation Ratio's & Technical Terms

There are a ton of financial terms and ratio's to learn such as PE, PEG, ROIC etc. The way to go about this is to learn these ratio's as you go when you encounter them in a book or your valuation and not just all at once. Investopedia usually has good explanations and videos of every term.
- Investopedia
The most important ratio's and relative valuations in my opinion are:
- Revenue
- Operating Margin
- Operating Income
- ROIC
- WACC (not the CAPM Version)
- Price-to-operating Cash Flow,and%20amortization%20to%20net%20income)
- Price-to-free Cash Flow
- Price-to-owner-earnings
- Debt-to-Equity
- Interest Coverage
- PEG
The most useless financial metric by far that way too many people use is the PE ratio, it is easily manipulated by accounting shenanigans, fluctuations in short term reporting and reinvesting companies such as Amazon. The PEG ratio also suffers from this but is better as it factors in growth.
Here's an intro to relative valuations by Aswath Damoradan:
Session 14: Relative Valuation - First Principles (Free)

5. Psychology of Investing

You should work on your own psychology to investing as soon as possible when you start investing. This will allow you to not panic sell during dips and crashes or FOMO (Fear Of Missing Out) during market rallies.
This is perhaps the most overlooked section, most investors never bother to get their psych in order which is a big mistake usually because of overconfidence of their own abilities.

6. Screeners

You should learn how to use screeners to narrow down stocks within your circle of competence and to the ratio's that you learned about in section 2. You want to screen for stocks that have below a certain threshold in x ratio, for example `PEG < 1` which will screen all stocks for you that have a PEG of less than 1 (A PEG of < 1 is theoretically undervalued...sometimes). It's best to combine multiple ratio's together to really narrow down to a select few companies to look at. This saves a bunch of time in finding potentially good companies.
The ratio's I like to use were all mentioned in section 2.
Screeners dump:
Screeners I personally like best:

7. Value Investing

The easiest way to make money long term in the stock market is to simple buy undervalued stocks, this ties into value investing. It's a simple concept where if you buy something undervalued then sooner or later the market will realize it's undervalued and correct accordingly (most times, sometimes it can stay undervalued forever). A lot of people mistake value investing for price to book ratio or some trash ratio like that, value investing is simply the concept of buying a stock for less than its intrinsic worth (i.e a margin of safety).
You must read the following books:
  1. Benjamin Graham - Intelligent Investor
  2. Benjamin Graham - Security Analysis, Sixth Edition
These are the staples of value investing and what Warren Buffet read multiple times. They are difficult and long books to understand at first which is why I have put them in the 6th section so don't worry if you don't understand everything at first.

8. Accounting

To be able to read Financial Statement numbers you really need to know how accounting works, both for GAAP (U.S) and IFRS (Most of Rest of World).
The reason why you should know accounting is not only to spot red flags in financial statements but also to understand the downsides of accounting. For example, only recently in 2018 were companies required to include Capital Leases in their balance sheets liabilities. Before then, companies could hide it in Off-Balance sheet statements that few people looked at, grossly inflating the viability of some businesses with heavy lease requirements.
David Krug's courses are an in depth full courses on accounting. You may not have the time to learn accounting in full though so if you do not then I would recommend the Accounting 101 course which fast tracks you to learn only what you need for our purposes.
Howard Schilit's book will give you a good overview into the most common financial accounting tricks that you can try and spot.

9. Monte Carlo Simulations & Data/Statistics

This section is completely optional and not necessary but allows you to fine tune your assumptions.
So monte-carlo simulations are simulations that run thousands of times on your valuation models (such as your DCF model) to simulate multiple cases in your models. So instead of just doing a bear case and a bull case in your DCF model you can run a monte-carlo simulation and give your boundaries for your inputs (e.g 25% with a std. deviation of +/- 5%) and you will get a range of different outputs, in our case estimated prices per share and then you can use the mean price as your estimated price per share.

10. Useful DD's and Blogs

One of the ways I find new stocks to look into is by reading blogs and posts about undervalued stocks. Here's a couple that I like:
Well... if you've made it this far then congratz. It's a lot to learn, basically a full time job to learn all of it. And that's the point, if it was easy everyone would be rich.
A final point is that a lot of the above links are from prof. Aswath Damoradan. The reason is that I have found him to be the absolute best source of information in regards to valuation ever and everything he publishes is completely free.
Thanks!
submitted by krisolch to ValueInvesting [link] [comments]

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